It would be hard to beat Chiang Mai for its combination of great November weather and low prices. Even though it's officially the start of the high season for hotels, the beginning of the month is usually very slow anyway, so bargains are common. Hotels in Chiang Mai are among the best bargains in the entire world, so even if you do have to pay full price for a room it'll be cheaper than a dorm bed in most European cities.
If you are looking for beach weather in December then most of your list won’t work, and several of them are only on rivers. Starting from Kolkata you have many good choices that are much closer to you than anywhere in Europe or the Canary Islands, or the Caribbean for that matter. In fact, I’m a bit confused by your list because there are so many different types of places on it, many that aren’t warm or on beaches.
Once again, it's worth noting that the first half of December will be cheaper and far less crowded than the time around Christmas, so if it's possible you should come early for best value. Still, compared to, say, Miami Beach, Cancun and the other Mexican resort towns are far cheaper and at least as fun as well. By the way, Cancun is mainly just a strip of high-rise hotels along a lovely beach, while Playa del Carmen (about an hour south) is a real tourist-friendly town with smaller hotels as well as hundreds of restaurants and shops to choose from.
November is a month of transitions: weather is cooling in most places, and as the days move towards Thanksgiving, momentum picks up and we’re rushing headlong into the winter holidays. It could be a good time for a trip, whether you’re looking for warm weather, taking advantage of cheap shoulder season rates, exploring a new exotic destination, or heading to the southern hemisphere to trade autumn for spring. Or you just might want to begin the holiday season early, get a head start on gift shopping, and jump right into winter’s chilly weather. Travel during November has something for everybody.
Without knowing more about your interests, my top suggestion would be to focus on Sydney and Melbourne and the areas around both. The Blue Mountains near Sydney are also nice for a couple days or so. The main challenge you’d have in seeing a lot of Australia is that it’s all so spread out. You can hire a car for Melbourne and Sydney and that whole area, but it’s better to fly to get to Uluru (near Alice Springs) or Brisbane or Cairns/Great Barrier Reef or Perth. You’d be driving for days in between those places if you started from the southeast area where most people live.
Since you mention the temperature in Fahrenheit, I’ll assume you are in the United States. You might have to go to the Southern Hemisphere to reliably get 84F or higher, but you can get over 80F in most of the Caribbean. You’ll get low 80s in Hawaii in early December as well. Fortunately, neither of those places get too crowded until just before Christmas, so either should work.
Once the scorching temperatures and monsoon rains of summer have subsided, November is the perfect time for exploring this kaleidoscope of colour and culture. Due to India’s size and terrain, you can still expect some variation across the country, but travels through Rajasthan and the Golden Triangle will be mostly dry, clear and balmy with a maximum of 30c (86F). Perfect for tiger-spotting in Ranthambhore, camel rides in Pushkar, and admiring the shimmering Taj Mahal!
I’ve spent a few weeks on Boracay, but not in early November. From what I’ve read, the monsoons there are usually not too bad, and it’s mainly a matter of a couple of hours rain in the afternoon on the bad days. Throughout the Tropics it’s very rare to get rain all day on any given day, and I’ve spent many months in those areas during rainy seasons. So early November isn’t ideal, but if it’s the only time you can go I still think you’ll enjoy it. One nice thing about Boracay is that the hotels are all basically on the beach or right off the beach, so even if it does start raining you can be back in your room in like 2 or 3 minutes. Best of luck with this. -Roger
Costa Rica, as you probably know, is all about nature and adventure sports, along with some decent beaches. It would be perfect if you are up for that sort of thing. If not, Santiago and Valparaiso (nearby cities in Chile) could be good for more of an urban adventure. Or Buenos Aires is even nicer and more interesting (and probably cheaper if you bring cash) if you can get a deal on a flight there.
One thing about Cancun that is interesting. Cancun itself is essentially a very long beach sticking out into the Caribbean that is lined with high-rise hotels and time-share properties. Except for a busy area at the corner of that peninsula, most of the hotels are spread out quite a bit, so there aren’t many things that most guests can walk to. Many people love it and are happy to basically stay in their own hotel most of the time, and maybe take a taxi down to that busy corner area once in a while. Personally, I’m a much bigger fan of Playa del Carmen, which is a full-on tourist town about 50 miles south of Cancun. It’s got hundreds of small hotels, restaurants, bars, shops, and everything else a visitor wants. The beaches aren’t quite as nice, but I find the town to be very fun and vibrant. Also, up and down the coast from south of Playa del Carmen to north of Cancun there are large resorts that are far from each other and on huge properties. Many of them are all-inclusive, so that is another option.
Actually, all of my best suggestions for those things are in the article above. One challenge you’ll have is that all popular tropical destinations have their peak weeks at the end of December because so many people in cold areas have that time off. So flights to Central or South America are going to be fairly expensive, although buying soon can help. For hiking and views I think Costa Rica could be a good choice, or Nicaragua. You could also go to Bariloche in Argentina, though it’s probably not worth going all that way unless you were also going to spend some time in Buenos Aires and such.
This is a really interesting question. If you want to avoid crowds then you have already figured out that it’s best to avoid Honolulu and I would avoid Oahu completely. The Big Island is very interesting because of the volcano and some of the other scenery, but the most beautiful islands are Maui and Kauai. I haven’t made it to Kauai yet, but everyone I know has been there and they swear it’s the most photogenic, which looks right based on the photos I’ve seen. Maui is also really gorgeous and all islands other than Oahu are uncrowded even in high season. I drove all over Maui in a rental car and loved it and I don’t think there is as much to see on Kauai. So either of those will be great choices and the weather should be almost perfect in December with warm (but not scorching) temperatures and almost no rain. Have a great trip and let me know if you have any other questions. -Roger
Traveling around India is a shock to the system, but it’s not as bad as it looks. If you pay a bit more for the AC3 class on trains (air-conditioned, 3 bunks per side of the compartment), or AC2, it’s pretty comfortable and civilized. Mumbai is worth a couple days before you’ll be desperate to get out, but many parts of Rajasthan are much nicer and fascinating.
Ah, November. The end of the year is nearing, and most of us haven't traveled nearly as much as we planned upon. Thankfully, the second to last month of the year boasts not one, but two, holiday weekends for you to cash in on some of those vacation days and take a little sojourn to somewhere special—with family, with friends, or maybe even your significant other. But where should you go? There are a ton of places where the weather is still warm in November. But if you are looking to cash in on the seasonal appeal, there are also scores of exotic locales which count November as the peak time to travel there (