This sounds like a really fun trip you have in mind. I think the challenge is that most of Europe is much closer to 50F than 80F in November, and a good chunk of Europe is already colder than that. I’m running a new series highlighting the best places in Europe (and Asia) to go each month of the year, and I think that the best Europe destinations in November would be helpful to you. Another tricky thing is that you’ve been to many of the warmer places already, and I do understand your boyfriend’s desire to go someplace that neither of you have been.
Aside from Indonesia you might also consider Thailand, which has great infrastructure so it’s much easier to travel with young children. Phuket has by far the most options, and its rainy season usually ends in early November. For families I recommend Kata Beach and Karon Beach, which are both just south of the main shopping and nightlife town of Patong Beach.
However, I also happen to be an athlete and about a month ago I reached the point where I had almost no power, no energy, constant hunger (and “hanger”) and cravings for practically anything bad like alcohol, sweets, carbs, artificial sweeteners or energy drinks. I tried to fight it. I started over multiple times. At one point I just couldn’t stick to any sensible dietary routine for longer than a day or two. Intermittent fasting, OMAD (one meal a day), TMAD (two meals a day) and keto all seemed to stop working.
In Cambodia the best place by far is the Angkor Wat temples just outside of Siem Reap. Siem Reap itself is a nice town with plenty to see and do, but 3 or maybe 4 days should be enough. Otherwise you have Phnom Penh, which isn’t too special, or Sihanoukville, which is a pleasant beach town that doesn’t really match up to most of what you are used to in the Philippines.
Assuming you might be in the US or Canada, my first hunch is Costa Rica, or Panama, which is a bit cheaper though not as well organized. Costa Rica has good surfing on its Pacific beaches, and there are very few all-inclusive resorts, which means that the restaurant scenes in resort areas are vibrant and interesting. Costa Rica also has limitless adventure opportunities, like zip-line tours and such, although they aren’t exactly cheap. Going inland you’ve got loads of national parks, as well as the famous volcano and its little spa town.
Oh, did you want a sunny tropical vacation that doesn’t require a passport? Done. Hurricane season is over, flights are cheap, and the water is still warm enough for swimming (and scuba diving). Almost all the tourists come here via cruise ship, which means you’re mostly not competing with them for hotel rooms -- Windward Passage, Emerald Beach, and the Bolongo are all open for business after Hurricanes Irma and Maria last year. On December 16 you can catch Jazz By The Sea down at Coral World Ocean Park, and on December 21 watch the St. Thomas Lighted Boat Parade, where contestants (boats) are judged on lights, originality, and holiday cheer.
I’ve done most of my travel as a solo, and I’m now a couple years older than you, so I know exactly what you are asking about. If you had even 2 full weeks I’d suggest going to southeast Asia, but as you say, the travel time could be a killer for a shorter trip. Still, it’s a unique experience with a lot of positive aspects to it, so you should keep it in mind. If you are still considering it, I’d suggest flying to Bangkok for 4 days or so, and then spend the rest of your time on one of the islands such as Kho Samui or Phuket. If you want more information on that, let me know.
Since flights to Mexico City from the US and Canada are usually quite cheap this time of year as well, this could be a perfect short cultural holiday. This city has great shopping, dining, and nightlife, and the central historic and tourist districts are far safer than most people would expect. There are ruins just out of town as well, so a bit of everything is available.